Nucleic acids are the building blocks of the genetic information found within the cell’s nucleus, and they make up two distinct structures: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). In total, there are five different nucleic acids: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. In both DNA and RNA, these nucleic acids are linked in a chain by nucleoside monophosphate groups. A subunit in DNA and RNA can be thought of as a nucleic acid joined to a nucleoside monophosphate group, both of which have a known chemical formula. The nucleic acid component of the cell has elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. However, there are slight differences between the DNA and RNA structures. DNA is composed of only adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, whereas RNA is composed of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil in replacement of thymine. Since there are four possible subunits found in either structure, the assumption was made that there is 25% of each subunit found in either DNA or RNA. The atom contents in both structures are summarized in Table 2.