Physics of Medical Imaging

Experimental validation of L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography imaging: phantom study

[+] Author Affiliations
Magdalena Bazalova-Carter

Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, 875 Blake Wilbur Dr, Stanford, California 94305, United States

University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada

Moiz Ahmad

Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, 875 Blake Wilbur Dr, Stanford, California 94305, United States

Lei Xing

Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, 875 Blake Wilbur Dr, Stanford, California 94305, United States

Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, California 94305, United States

Rebecca Fahrig

Stanford University, Department of Radiology, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, California 94305, United States

J. Med. Imag. 2(4), 043501 (Oct 08, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JMI.2.4.043501
History: Received May 22, 2015; Accepted September 9, 2015
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Abstract.  Thanks to the current advances in nanoscience, molecular biochemistry, and x-ray detector technology, x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) has been considered for molecular imaging of probes containing high atomic number elements, such as gold nanoparticles. The commonly used XFCT imaging performed with K-shell x rays appears to have insufficient imaging sensitivity to detect the low gold concentrations observed in small animal studies. Low energy fluorescence L-shell x rays have exhibited higher signal-to-background ratio and appeared as a promising XFCT mode with greatly enhanced sensitivity. The aim of this work was to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of L-shell XFCT imaging and to assess its achievable sensitivity. We built an experimental L-shell XFCT imaging system consisting of a miniature x-ray tube and two spectrometers, a silicon drift detector (SDD), and a CdTe detector placed at ±120deg with respect to the excitation beam. We imaged a 28-mm-diameter water phantom with 4-mm-diameter Eppendorf tubes containing gold solutions with concentrations of 0.06 to 0.1% Au. While all Au vials were detectable in the SDD L-shell XFCT image, none of the vials were visible in the CdTe L-shell XFCT image. The detectability limit of the presented L-shell XFCT SDD imaging setup was 0.007% Au, a concentration observed in small animal studies.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Magdalena Bazalova-Carter ; Moiz Ahmad ; Lei Xing and Rebecca Fahrig
"Experimental validation of L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography imaging: phantom study", J. Med. Imag. 2(4), 043501 (Oct 08, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.2.4.043501


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