Physics of Medical Imaging

Spectral response model for a multibin photon-counting spectral computed tomography detector and its applications

[+] Author Affiliations
Xuejin Liu, Mats Persson, Hans Bornefalk, Staffan Karlsson, Cheng Xu, Mats Danielsson, Ben Huber

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm 10691, Sweden

J. Med. Imag. 2(3), 033502 (Sep 11, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JMI.2.3.033502
History: Received April 27, 2015; Accepted August 13, 2015
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Abstract.  Variations among detector channels in computed tomography can lead to ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and biased estimates in projection-based material decomposition. Typically, the ring artifacts are corrected by compensation methods based on flat fielding, where transmission measurements are required for a number of material-thickness combinations. Phantoms used in these methods can be rather complex and require an extensive number of transmission measurements. Moreover, material decomposition needs knowledge of the individual response of each detector channel to account for the detector inhomogeneities. For this purpose, we have developed a spectral response model that binwise predicts the response of a multibin photon-counting detector individually for each detector channel. The spectral response model is performed in two steps. The first step employs a forward model to predict the expected numbers of photon counts, taking into account parameters such as the incident x-ray spectrum, absorption efficiency, and energy response of the detector. The second step utilizes a limited number of transmission measurements with a set of flat slabs of two absorber materials to fine-tune the model predictions, resulting in a good correspondence with the physical measurements. To verify the response model, we apply the model in two cases. First, the model is used in combination with a compensation method which requires an extensive number of transmission measurements to determine the necessary parameters. Our spectral response model successfully replaces these measurements by simulations, saving a significant amount of measurement time. Second, the spectral response model is used as the basis of the maximum likelihood approach for projection-based material decomposition. The reconstructed basis images show a good separation between the calcium-like material and the contrast agents, iodine and gadolinium. The contrast agent concentrations are reconstructed with more than 94% accuracy.

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Xuejin Liu ; Mats Persson ; Hans Bornefalk ; Staffan Karlsson ; Cheng Xu, et al.
"Spectral response model for a multibin photon-counting spectral computed tomography detector and its applications", J. Med. Imag. 2(3), 033502 (Sep 11, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.2.3.033502


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