The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of needle-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and functional analysis of OCT data along the full pullback trajectory of the OCT measurement in the prostate, correlated with pathology. OCT images were recorded using a commercially available C7-XR™ OCT Intravascular Imaging System interfaced to a C7 Dragonfly™ intravascular 0.9-mm-diameter imaging probe. A computer program was constructed for automated image attenuation analysis. First, calibration of the OCT system for both the point spread function and the system roll-off was achieved by measurement of the OCT signal attenuation from an extremely weakly scattering medium (Intralipid® 0.0005 volume%). Second, the data were arranged in 31 radial wedges (pie slices) per circular segments consisting of 16 A-scans per wedge and 5 axial B-scans, resulting in an average A-scan per wedge. Third, the decay of the OCT signal is analyzed over 50 pixels () in depth, starting from the first found maximum data point. Fourth, for visualization, the data were grouped with a corresponding color representing a specific range according to their attenuation coefficient. Finally, the analyses were compared to histopathology. To ensure that each single use sterile imaging probe is comparable to the measurements of the other imaging probes, the probe-to-probe variations were analyzed by measuring attenuation coefficients of 0.03, 6.5, 11.4, 17, and 22.7 volume% Intralipid®. Experiments were repeated five times per probe for four probes. Inter- and intraprobe variation in the measured attenuation of Intralipid samples with scattering properties similar to that of the prostate was of the mean values. Mean attenuation coefficients in the prostate were for parts of the tissue that were classified as benign (SD: , minimum: , maximum: ) and for parts of tissue that were classified as malignant (SD: , minimum: , maximum: ). In benign areas, the tissue looked homogeneous, whereas in malignant areas, small glandular structures were seen. However, not all areas in which a high attenuation coefficient became apparent corresponded to areas of prostate cancer. This paper describes the first in-tissue needle-based OCT imaging and three-dimensional optical attenuation analysis of prostate tissue that indicates a correlation with pathology. Fully automated attenuation coefficient analysis was performed at 1300 nm over the full pullback. Correlation with pathology was achieved by coregistration of three-dimensional (3-D) OCT attenuation maps with 3-D pathology of the prostate. This may contribute to the current challenge of prostate imaging and the rising interest in focal therapy for reduction of side effects occurring with current therapies.