We statistically compare the contributions of parenchymal phenotypes to mammographic density in distinguishing between high-risk cases and low-risk controls. The age-matched evaluation included computerized mammographic assessment of breast percent density (PD) and parenchymal patterns (phenotypes of coarseness and contrast) from radiographic texture analysis (RTA) of the full-field digital mammograms from 456 cases: 53 women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations, 75 with unilateral cancer, and 328 at low risk of developing breast cancer. Image-based phenotypes of parenchymal pattern coarseness and contrast were each found to significantly discriminate between the groups; however, PD did not. From ROC analysis, PD alone yielded area under the fitted ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.53 () and 0.57 () in the classification task between BRCA1/2 gene-mutation carriers and low-risk women, and between unilateral cancer and low-risk women, respectively. In a round-robin evaluation with Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN) analysis, RTA yielded AUC values of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [0.71, 0.89]) and 0.70 (95% confidence interval [0.63, 0.77]) between the BRCA1/2 gene-mutation carriers and low-risk women, and between unilateral cancer and low-risk women, respectively. These results show that high-risk and low-risk women have different mammographic parenchymal patterns with significantly higher discrimination resulting from characteristics of the parenchymal patterns than just the breast PD.